# Geophysics

### A generalized theory of viscous and inviscid flutter

Fluid Mechanics Biomechanics Geophysics Fluid-structure interaction FlutterWe present a unified theory of flutter in inviscid and viscous flows interacting with flexible structures based on the phenomenon of 1 : 1 resonance. We show this by treating four extreme cases corresponding to viscous and inviscid flows in confined and unconfined flows. To see the common mechanism clearly, we consider the limit when the frequencies of the first few elastic modes are closely clustered and small relative to the convective fluid time scale.

### The feasibility of generating low-frequency volcano seismicity by flow through a deformable channel

Fluid Mechanics Fluid-structure interaction GeophysicsOscillations generated by flow of magmatic or hydrothermal fluids through tabular channels in elastic rocks are a possible source of low-frequency seismicity. We assess the conditions required to generate oscillations of approximately 1 Hz via hydrodynamic flow instabilities (roll waves), flow-destabilized standing waves set up on the elastic channel walls (wall modes), and unstable normal modes ringing in an adjacent fluid reservoir (clarinet modes). Stability criteria are based on physical and dimensional arguments, and discussion of destabilized elastic modes is supplemented with laboratory experiments of gas flow through a channel in a block of gelatine, and between a rigid plate and a rubber membrane.

### Bounds on double-diffusive convection

Fluid Mechanics Geophysics Analysis Double diffusionWe consider double-diffusive convection between two parallel plates and compute bounds on the flux of the unstably stratified species using the background method. The bound on the heat flux for Rayleigh–Bénard convection also serves as a bound on the double-diffusive problem (with the thermal Rayleigh number equal to that of the unstably stratified component). In order to incorporate a dependence of the bound on the stably stratified component, an additional constraint must be included, like that used by Joseph (Stability of Fluid Motion, 1976, Springer) to improve the energy stability analysis of this system.